Just-in-time in de externe toelevering.
Report 92.3.LT.3022, Transport Technology, Logistic Engineering.
The Japanese have implemented with success Just-in-Time purchasing.
Western companies who aim to implement JIT purchasing must know there is a
cultural difference in relationships between companies. In Japan the
suppliers are ruled by the buying companies. In the West relationships
must be based on cooperation.
In Western countries the model of JIT purchasing consists of five elements.
Tactical planning is the first. In this element the central issue is the
relationship between buying company and supplier. The other four elements are
part of the operational planning. These are: data flow, material flow,
shipping agent and quality management.
To achieve cooperation both parties must trust each other. Qualitative factors
provide this trust. Good supplier programs and a solid intention determine the
qualitative factors. A supplier program informs the suppliers. The buying
company proves to have a solid intention by working seriously on: relation
management, contract, cost calculation and rationalism.
Quantitative factors support qualitative factors. Those are all agreements put
in the frame contract.
The data flow to the supplier consists the planning information and direct
delivery demand. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is used for the data
High-value parts are chosen for JIT purchasing. The supply frequency is based
on minimal costs of transport and stockholding.
The shipping agent overtakes the logistic function of the supplier and
buying company. The shipping agent has to combine freights in order to
optimize the material flow. He also manages the central warehouse for
Quality management contains five elements: quality planning, quality control,
quality testing, quality adjusting and securing quality costs. The buying
company determines the planning aims. The supplier is responsible for the
product quality. Both parties are responsible for product testing. Statistical
methods must be used in this testings. The buying company evaluates the
quality adjusting as part of the quality management. The aim of securing costs
is reducing the total quality costs. Quality costs are costs of failure, costs
of prevention and judgement costs.
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