Report 96.3.LT.4727, Transport Technology, Logistic Engineering.
Since the last decades, road transport has increased immensely and this
increase will probably continue. Traffic congestion is the result, and
the problems due to this congestion are: traffic (un)safety, loss of
time, energy consumption and personal frustrations. This has led to
the development of intelligent transportation systems (ITS): information
technologies implemented in vehicles, on roadways, or centrally, which
should reduce the problems mentioned above.
At the moment, ITS is a hype all over the world. In the United States, Europe,
Japan and Australia development started approximately in the mid-6'0s and was
considerably accelerated since the mid-'80s. Large research programs and
coordinating agencies were established.
A commonly used categorisation of ITS is a functional one, in which
the first three categories are broad categories and the other three
are targeted on specific users:
In the United States a national goal has been set for ITS. The matching
plan is structured around 29 "user services": products and
services to satisfy user needs. These user services have been
grouped into 7 bundles and represent a more precise categorisation
and definition of the exact possibilities of ITS. The 7 bundles are:
- ATMS (Advanced Traffic Management Systems): monitoring and
controlling traffic to improve traffic-distribution and traffic-flow,
e.g. electronic message signs, central traffic-light control;
- ATIS (Advanced Traveler Information Systems): provide individual
travelers with information to enhance their traveling efficiency, e.g.
route-guidance (in-vehicle digital maps and real-time traffic
- AVCS (Advanced Vehicle Control Systems): assist or replace a driver in
performing driving tasks, intended to enhance safety and traffic-flow, e.g.
automatic distance keeping;
- CVO (Commercial Vehicle Operations): targeted on commercial road transport
(trucks), e.g. automatic vehicle location;
- APTS (Advanced Public Transportation Systems): targeted on public transport,
e.g. realtime traveler information in a bus;
- ARTS (Advanced Rural Transportation Systems): targeted on transport in
rural areas, e.g. automatic incident detection.
In Europe there are two main ITS-programs:
- Travel and Transportation Management
- Travel Demand Management
- Advanced Public Transportation Operations
- Electronic Payment
- Commercial Vehicle Operations
- Emergency Management
- Advanced Vehicle Control and Safety Systems
In Japan, the numerous projects are less well-coordinated; a lot of
agencies, ministries and industries have their own system. Efforts are
however being made for coordination.
- Prometheus, originally initiated by the European automotive
industry, emphasizes on the vehicle-part of ITS. A number of
study-programs are led by the automotive industry (industrial
research) and some others are led by universities (basic research).
- Drive (I and II), established by the European Commission, emphasizes on
the infrastructural part of ITS. Drive II builds on the results of Drive I,
with lots of operational tests.
Some representative ITS-projects are:
Many aspects are important in the development of ITS:
- United States: TravTek, SMART Corridor, PATH
- Europe: Ali-scout/Euro-scout, Rekeningrijden, VITA II
- Japan: VICS, UTMS
- Australia: SCATS, ANTTS
Implementation of ITS take place in stages. Very roughly spoken, in
the first stage traffic management systems and traveler information
systems, and in a next stage also vehicle control systems will be
commonly used. Fully automated vehicles on fully automated roads
might be reality around 2030.
- technological aspects: especially compatibility (standardisation) and
an appropriate system architecture are extremely necessary;
- economical aspects: who will pay for the high costs of construction,
who will pay for use; another dilemma is: who will buy vehicle systems
if there is no appropriate infrastructure, but who will build an
infrastructure if there are no users;
- organisational aspects: public-private partnerships are necessary and
beneficient, as well as international cooperation;
- education: a sufficient number of ITS-educated people is needed,
otherwise the developed technology will not be very effective;
- legal liability: if the control of a vehicle is transferred to some
kind of ITS, who will be responsible when an accident occurs;
- social issues: threat to privacy and individual freedom;
- latent demand: increasing road capacity by ITS can lead to an
increase of trips being made.
Reports on Logistic Engineering (in Dutch)
, TU Delft