Delft University of Technology
Faculty Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering
Transport Technology / Logistic Engineering

J.D. Quak Intelligente transportsystemen.
Literature survey, Report 96.3.LT.4727, Transport Technology, Logistic Engineering.

Since the last decades, road transport has increased immensely and this increase will probably continue. Traffic congestion is the result, and the problems due to this congestion are: traffic (un)safety, loss of time, energy consumption and personal frustrations. This has led to the development of intelligent transportation systems (ITS): information technologies implemented in vehicles, on roadways, or centrally, which should reduce the problems mentioned above.

At the moment, ITS is a hype all over the world. In the United States, Europe, Japan and Australia development started approximately in the mid-6'0s and was considerably accelerated since the mid-'80s. Large research programs and coordinating agencies were established.

A commonly used categorisation of ITS is a functional one, in which the first three categories are broad categories and the other three are targeted on specific users:
  1. ATMS (Advanced Traffic Management Systems): monitoring and controlling traffic to improve traffic-distribution and traffic-flow, e.g. electronic message signs, central traffic-light control;
  2. ATIS (Advanced Traveler Information Systems): provide individual travelers with information to enhance their traveling efficiency, e.g. route-guidance (in-vehicle digital maps and real-time traffic information);
  3. AVCS (Advanced Vehicle Control Systems): assist or replace a driver in performing driving tasks, intended to enhance safety and traffic-flow, e.g. automatic distance keeping;
  4. CVO (Commercial Vehicle Operations): targeted on commercial road transport (trucks), e.g. automatic vehicle location;
  5. APTS (Advanced Public Transportation Systems): targeted on public transport, e.g. realtime traveler information in a bus;
  6. ARTS (Advanced Rural Transportation Systems): targeted on transport in rural areas, e.g. automatic incident detection.
In the United States a national goal has been set for ITS. The matching plan is structured around 29 "user services": products and services to satisfy user needs. These user services have been grouped into 7 bundles and represent a more precise categorisation and definition of the exact possibilities of ITS. The 7 bundles are:
  1. Travel and Transportation Management
  2. Travel Demand Management
  3. Advanced Public Transportation Operations
  4. Electronic Payment
  5. Commercial Vehicle Operations
  6. Emergency Management
  7. Advanced Vehicle Control and Safety Systems
In Europe there are two main ITS-programs: In Japan, the numerous projects are less well-coordinated; a lot of agencies, ministries and industries have their own system. Efforts are however being made for coordination.

Some representative ITS-projects are: Many aspects are important in the development of ITS: Implementation of ITS take place in stages. Very roughly spoken, in the first stage traffic management systems and traveler information systems, and in a next stage also vehicle control systems will be commonly used. Fully automated vehicles on fully automated roads might be reality around 2030.

Reports on Logistic Engineering (in Dutch)
Modified: 2001.02.21; , TU Delft / 3mE / TT / LT.