Conceptual design of the Puerto América combi-terminal. Optimisation of
the quay configuration by means of simulation.
Report 2000.LT.5347, Transport Technology, Logistic Engineering.
Puerto América is a proposed new port at the entrance to Lake
Maracaibo in Venezuela. Lake Maracaibo is a semi-enclosed estuary with a very
narrow and shallow strait connection to the sea. To enable sea ships to enter
the lake, an entrance channel was dredged in the 1970's. As a result the
lake suffered from increased salinity, which has developed into a serious
To solve this environmental problem it is proposed to close the entrance
channel. This would mean that sea ships can not enter Lake Maracaibo any longer.
Therefore, it is proposed to develop new port facilities at the entrance to
the lake. One of these facilities is a combi-terminal. Here breakbulk as well
as containers can be handled.
The objective of this report is to discuss the development of conceptual
designs of the Puerto América combi-terminal for scenarios of 2005 and
2015. These designs consist of the following elements:
For the optimisation of the quay length in combination of the type and number
of equipment, a simulation model is developed.
- A conceptual layout;
- An accompanying equipment choice;
- A cost estimate;
First a research of port and terminal planning techniques is made. These
methods and techniques form the basis for the development of the designs. Next
a detailed cargo and traffic analysis is made. The cargo is categorised by its
handling rates and weight. The vessels are categorised by length and average
parcel size. With the resulting cargo and traffic forecast, initial designs
are made. This results in two different configurations for the quay:
To optimise and evaluate the different configurations, a simulation model of a
combi-terminal is developed. With this simulation model it is possible to
determine the required number and type of equipment at the quay for a
particular scenario. Further, it can be used to determine the minimum
required quay length and to make an estimate of the rail requirements at the
- Maximum flexibility configuration, consisting of only mobile jib cranes in
order to have a maximum of flexibility in the quay operations.
- Maximum capacity configuration, consisting of a combination of container
gantry cranes and mobile cranes in order to minimise the service times for
the container vessels.
Finally, the following terminal designs are chosen for the Puerto América
- For the 2005 scenario, a quay length of 600m in combination with 1 type
20.0t/40.0m mobile jib crane and 5 type 23.0t/44.0m mobile jib cranes will
guarantee the minimum required capacity for the expected cargo types and
traffic levels. This results in a terminal width of 520m and an annual
cost of Euro 12,900,000.
- For the 2015 scenario, a quay length of l000m (including 450m with rail)
in combination with 2 type 20.0t/40.0m mobile jib cranes, 4 type
23.0t/44.0m mobile jib cranes and 2 container gantry cranes with
40t/40m will guarantee the minimum required capacity for the
expected cargo types and traffic levels. This results in a terminal width
of 520m and an annual cost of €21,100,000.
Reports on Logistic Engineering (in Dutch)
, TU Delft