Processen passagiers op vliegvelden.
Report 2003.TL.6715, Transport Technology, Logistic Engineering.
On airports many complex processes take place. In the terminal building
three main processes, changing mode, processing passengers and (re-)grouping
of passengers take place. Passengers are divided into enplaning and deplaning
Enplaning passengers enter the airport in the departure hall. Passengers
then check-in at the check-in lobby. Many types of check-in variants are
known. The check-in is followed by a security check on explosives and
weapons. If necessary customs and an immigration check will be applied
after the security check. Before boarding the airplane, passengers can
wait in the waiting areas. In these areas passengers can do several things
like shopping and eating.
The process of deplaning passengers includes: de-boarding, walking towards
the checkout facilities, baggage reclaim, when necessary a custom and
immigration check and leaving the airport through the arriving hall.
Transfer passengers use the airport for changing plane. Four transfer
types are known:
All types have characteristic properties, like custom checks and walking
distances for the passengers.
- passengers -> domestic arrival, domestic departure
- passengers -> international arrival, international departure
- passengers -> international arrival, domestic departure
- passengers -> domestic arrival, international departure
Seven basic configurations for designing a terminal building are known,
all with specific properties. When an airport decides to build a terminal,
the needs of the airport will determine the layout choice. Mostly it will
be a mixture of two or more basic configurations. Vertical dividing of
passenger and baggage flows will increase the terminal capacity.
Designing an airport terminal, designers need to consider the main type of
passenger that will use the airport. Types of passengers are distinguished
by travel purpose, destination and flight characteristics
The size of the terminal is determined mainly by the number of passengers.
Required terminal space is defined in several standards.
Main factors influencing the maximum capacity of airport terminals are:
If terminal configuration, fraction of transfer passengers and fraction of
hub transfer passengers is known, mean walking distance for passengers can
- Walking distance passengers
- Desired level of service
- Desired airport performance
- Traffic peaking characteristics
- Transfer volume
- Technical innovation
Aircraft security depends irrespective of aircraft reliability mainly on
the security progress in the terminal. For checking passengers on explosives
and dangerous weapons many x-ray and metal detectors are available.
The growth of low-fare carriers demands a different approach to passenger
processing on airports. Network carriers are much more focussed on customer
service, where low-fare carriers main focus is low-ticket prices.
Effects of September 11, 2001 are mainly focussed on the security of passengers
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