Delft University of Technology
Faculty Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering
Transport Technology / Logistic Engineering

J.F. Zuijderwijk Processen passagiers op vliegvelden.
Literature survey, Report 2003.TL.6715, Transport Technology, Logistic Engineering.

On airports many complex processes take place. In the terminal building three main processes, changing mode, processing passengers and (re-)grouping of passengers take place. Passengers are divided into enplaning and deplaning passengers.

Enplaning passengers enter the airport in the departure hall. Passengers then check-in at the check-in lobby. Many types of check-in variants are known. The check-in is followed by a security check on explosives and weapons. If necessary customs and an immigration check will be applied after the security check. Before boarding the airplane, passengers can wait in the waiting areas. In these areas passengers can do several things like shopping and eating.

The process of deplaning passengers includes: de-boarding, walking towards the checkout facilities, baggage reclaim, when necessary a custom and immigration check and leaving the airport through the arriving hall.

Transfer passengers use the airport for changing plane. Four transfer types are known:
  1. passengers -> domestic arrival, domestic departure
  2. passengers -> international arrival, international departure
  3. passengers -> international arrival, domestic departure
  4. passengers -> domestic arrival, international departure
All types have characteristic properties, like custom checks and walking distances for the passengers.

Seven basic configurations for designing a terminal building are known, all with specific properties. When an airport decides to build a terminal, the needs of the airport will determine the layout choice. Mostly it will be a mixture of two or more basic configurations. Vertical dividing of passenger and baggage flows will increase the terminal capacity.
Designing an airport terminal, designers need to consider the main type of passenger that will use the airport. Types of passengers are distinguished by travel purpose, destination and flight characteristics (charter/scheduled).
The size of the terminal is determined mainly by the number of passengers. Required terminal space is defined in several standards.
Main factors influencing the maximum capacity of airport terminals are: If terminal configuration, fraction of transfer passengers and fraction of hub transfer passengers is known, mean walking distance for passengers can be determined.

Aircraft security depends irrespective of aircraft reliability mainly on the security progress in the terminal. For checking passengers on explosives and dangerous weapons many x-ray and metal detectors are available.

The growth of low-fare carriers demands a different approach to passenger processing on airports. Network carriers are much more focussed on customer service, where low-fare carriers main focus is low-ticket prices.

Effects of September 11, 2001 are mainly focussed on the security of passengers and airplanes.

Reports on Logistic Engineering (in Dutch)
Modified: 2003.05.06; , TU Delft / 3mE / TT / LT.