De Stadsbox als verpakkingseenheid.
Report 2003.TL.6821, Transport Engineering and Logistics.
The existing concept and prototype of the Citybox, which is explained in the
second chapter of this report, completely proceeds from the problems of Albert
Heijn. Because of this no attention is paid to other branches or
nowadays-packaging methods. This report explores the possible directions
for optimising the constructive design of the Citybox, within the branch
In the third chapter first of all the legislation on distribution
packaging has been examined. After that the norms, which can be useful to
further optimising of the Citybox, have been examined. In the fourth
chapter the nowadays-used packaging methods have been investigated, on the
base of packaging categories. Relatively much attention is paid to a
separate paragraph about securing of loads in the Citybox, because this
topic was underexposed in the constructive design.
From this research it can be concluded that some aspects are underexposed
in the constructive design of the Citybox.
Relatively little attention is paid to the impact of the Citybox on the
environment. A number of laws are relevant to this topic and they even
include programs of requirements. From an environmental point of view the
environmental impact of only the Citybox can be considered, or the
environmental impact of the logistic concept as a whole.
Concerning load securing no Dutch laws are available, but in other
European countries there are. The Citybox doesn't meet the requirements
stated in the German law concerning cargospace limitations. The concept of
transporting more Cityboxes on a vehicle has to be reconsidered with due
observance of the load graphs of the vehicles in question. These load
graphs play also an important role in the choice of a vehicle, with which
the Cityboxes will be transported. Especially the displacements of the
centre of mass occurring due to loading and unloading are important for
the road-holding of the vehicle. From a logistic point of view it can be
said that the prototype of the Citybox asks too much adaptations of the
existing transport infrastructure and transport situation.
The ergonomic aspects have been underexposed as well in the constructive
design. From the human physical load requirements several values can be
derived for the Citybox. For example the maximum angle of inclination for
the running board, the maximum weight of the total load and the place of
the centre of gravity. From ergonomics also the minimum inner height based
on the body length of people can be derived and the needed level of light.
Finally a number of aspectS on which the Citybox has to be tested, can be
given, for example surrounding influences and loudness measurements.
From legislation concerning dangerous substances the following is derived.
If the Citybox in the future is used for the transport of dangerous
substances, it has to be examined per substance if the Citybox meets the
From this literature study a couple of directions for further research to
optimise the Citybox have come out. The requirements per direction cannot
only violate each other, but also requirements from other directions.
An optimum between all these requirements has to be found. Therefore some
concessions have to be made.
The optimising process of the Citybox will be an iterative process. Even
during further research and use new points for attention will come up.
Reports on Transport Engineering and Logistics (in Dutch)
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