Delft University of Technology
Faculty Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering
Transport Technology

A. Hilberink De Stadsbox als verpakkingseenheid.
Literature survey, Report 2003.TL.6821, Transport Engineering and Logistics.

The existing concept and prototype of the Citybox, which is explained in the second chapter of this report, completely proceeds from the problems of Albert Heijn. Because of this no attention is paid to other branches or nowadays-packaging methods. This report explores the possible directions for optimising the constructive design of the Citybox, within the branch of packaging.

In the third chapter first of all the legislation on distribution packaging has been examined. After that the norms, which can be useful to further optimising of the Citybox, have been examined. In the fourth chapter the nowadays-used packaging methods have been investigated, on the base of packaging categories. Relatively much attention is paid to a separate paragraph about securing of loads in the Citybox, because this topic was underexposed in the constructive design.

From this research it can be concluded that some aspects are underexposed in the constructive design of the Citybox.
Relatively little attention is paid to the impact of the Citybox on the environment. A number of laws are relevant to this topic and they even include programs of requirements. From an environmental point of view the environmental impact of only the Citybox can be considered, or the environmental impact of the logistic concept as a whole.
Concerning load securing no Dutch laws are available, but in other European countries there are. The Citybox doesn't meet the requirements stated in the German law concerning cargospace limitations. The concept of transporting more Cityboxes on a vehicle has to be reconsidered with due observance of the load graphs of the vehicles in question. These load graphs play also an important role in the choice of a vehicle, with which the Cityboxes will be transported. Especially the displacements of the centre of mass occurring due to loading and unloading are important for the road-holding of the vehicle. From a logistic point of view it can be said that the prototype of the Citybox asks too much adaptations of the existing transport infrastructure and transport situation.
The ergonomic aspects have been underexposed as well in the constructive design. From the human physical load requirements several values can be derived for the Citybox. For example the maximum angle of inclination for the running board, the maximum weight of the total load and the place of the centre of gravity. From ergonomics also the minimum inner height based on the body length of people can be derived and the needed level of light. Finally a number of aspectS on which the Citybox has to be tested, can be given, for example surrounding influences and loudness measurements.
From legislation concerning dangerous substances the following is derived. If the Citybox in the future is used for the transport of dangerous substances, it has to be examined per substance if the Citybox meets the specific requirements.

From this literature study a couple of directions for further research to optimise the Citybox have come out. The requirements per direction cannot only violate each other, but also requirements from other directions.
An optimum between all these requirements has to be found. Therefore some concessions have to be made.
The optimising process of the Citybox will be an iterative process. Even during further research and use new points for attention will come up.

Reports on Transport Engineering and Logistics (in Dutch)
Modified: 2003.11.24; , TU Delft / 3mE / TT / LT.