Automatic Identification System and new applications
Report 2006.TL.7077, Transport Engineering and Logistics.
The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a navigation and information
system developed for international shipping. The system makes use of VHF
radiofrequencies to broadcast real-time information like speed, position,
heading and many other types of information. The system gathers information
of a satellite navigation connection, sensors and data input by the user.
The range of broadcast depends on the line of sight and is usually between
20 - 40 nautical miles. Other AIS users within this range can receive this
information and use it for navigation. Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) can
also make use of this system for traffic control.
Other areas of application in shipping are Inland Shipping, as aids to
navigation (AtoN) and as an information source. In Inland Shipping users
would be the shipmasters for navigation, port authorities for terminal
planning, channel owners for automatic billing and other users. AIS for
AtoN's can be used for maintenance of the AtoN's and as provider of
meteorological and hydrological information. As information source AIS can
help with fleet management, in law enforcement against polluters or mandatory
shipping routes and other possibilities.
Next to these maritime applications also other areas outside shipping can be
found. In aviation a similar system is in development called ADS-B. This will
be a collision avoidance system which makes flying possible without the help of
air traffic controllers. Other examples are train networks or taxi networks,
having the advantage of already available GNSS connections and VHF radios.
Another interesting application could be the combination of AIS technology
with RFID systems and sensors. An unmanned automatic bus system is described
for bus connections between airports, parking areas and near by cities.
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