Ontwikkeling van een methodiek voor het beoordelen van de waterbezwaarlijkheid
Report 2007.TEL.7185, Transport Engineering and Logistics.
The project 'Bulk Spillage Prevention during Grab Operations' is a
cooperation between various bulk terminals, the Ministry of Transport,
Public Works and Water Management, NIEMA, the Erasmus University and Delft
University of Technology. This project strives for a more feasible
legislation concerning the spillage of bulk. In this project the harmfulness
of the spilled bulk materials for the receiving surface water is unknown.
Bulk materials often consist of a large number of known and unknown
components, of which even the harmfulness of known components is often
unknown. The goal of this literature research is to explore which
classifications and methodologies are available which can give/determine an
indication of the harmfulness of the bulk materials for surface water. With
this information the initiative for a methodology which determines the
harmfulness of bulk materials for surface water, can be made. Such a
methodology should be in line with existing legislations as much as possible.
At this moment there is one classification available which is indicative of
the harmfulness of bulk materials for surface water: the Ship Waste
Resolution. It classifies different shiploads into two classes according to
how clean the hold has to before before purging the waste wash water into
the surface water. Some waste wash waters are not permitted to be purged
into surface water, the third most harmful class.
The current (inter)national legislation concerning surface water quality is
based on maximum permitted concentrations of known substances. In this
context there is a methodology which is used to assess liquid discharges of
known composition, the General Assement Methodology (ABM). It assigns a
decontamination class to the discharge according to the harmfulness of the
discharge to surface water. This class determines the level of effort that
has to be put into the decontamination of the discharge before it can be
released into the surface water. This methodology is used sporadically to
assess the harmfulness of bulk materials, it's application is however not
always sound. First of all the methodology cannot asses the unknown
components of the bulk materials. Second the methodology is developed to
determine the harmfulness of liquid substances, not solid materials like
bulk materials; the process in which various components of the bulk
materials lixiviate into the surrounding surface is unknown.
The Total Liquid Waste Assessment (TEB) can handle unknown components in a
liquid discharge. It assesses the harmfulness of a total discharge with
effect oriented parameters. Information concerning composition is not needed.
There is however no (inter)national legislation concerning water quality
assessed in an effect oriented manner.
A methodology which can assess the harmfulness of bulk materials has be
effect oriented in general to cope with the complex composition. It does
however have to give some information concerning the most important
concentrations of individual substances. A new methodology should also make
use of existing assessment tools to facilitate implementation.
For this reason the general the new methodology will use harmfulness classes
which correspond to the decontamination classes of the ABM. It should also
give a quantitative indication of the harmfulness of the bulk material for
the surface water. The methodology will asses bulk materials on the content
of dangerous (known) substances, the lixiviation and the amount of dust
formation in water. The lixiviation product of the bulk materials will
be assed with the TEB, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphate- &
nitrogen loads effectparameters. It will probably not be necessary to assess
the lixiviation product of the different types of bulk material with all
effectparameters, though a experimental research will have to prove this.
This will reduce the total amount of experiments needed to asses all bulk
materials on harmfulness for surface water. This methodology will thus be
partly substance oriented, by assigning a (decontamination) class A to
all bulk materials which posses known harmful components. Further specific
substance data will however require two parallel assessments, a substance
oriented assessment and an effect oriented assessment.
A quantitative indication of the harmfulness of bulk materials seems of less
value than the (decontamination) harmfulness class. A relatively simple
classification procedure to determine this is sufficient (only 3 classes),
depending on the values of the various (effect)parameters. The development
of a quantitative indication of the harmfulness of a bulk material is more
complex and will require a more specific and defined approach. The intrinsic
value of a quantitative indication of the harmfulness is however limited
because, among others, an (inter)national legislation of such a value does
not exist. A recommendation for the further development of this methodology
is the selection of missing (effect)parameter protocols. Furthermore the
experiment which confirms the needed effect parameters to assess the various
bulk material lixiviation products types should be performed. The different
options throughout the classification procedure should also be defined.
Finally the value of the Ship Waste Water classification should be examined
for added value for this classification procedure. It can potentially reduce
the number of bulk materials that have to be assessed and or reduce the
classification procedures in length.
Reports on Transport Engineering and Logistics (in Dutch)
, TU Delft