Delft University of Technology
Faculty Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering
Transport Technology

J. Hiltermann Ontwikkeling van een methodiek voor het beoordelen van de waterbezwaarlijkheid van stortgoederen
Literature survey, Report 2007.TEL.7185, Transport Engineering and Logistics.

The project 'Bulk Spillage Prevention during Grab Operations' is a cooperation between various bulk terminals, the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, NIEMA, the Erasmus University and Delft University of Technology. This project strives for a more feasible legislation concerning the spillage of bulk. In this project the harmfulness of the spilled bulk materials for the receiving surface water is unknown. Bulk materials often consist of a large number of known and unknown components, of which even the harmfulness of known components is often unknown. The goal of this literature research is to explore which classifications and methodologies are available which can give/determine an indication of the harmfulness of the bulk materials for surface water. With this information the initiative for a methodology which determines the harmfulness of bulk materials for surface water, can be made. Such a methodology should be in line with existing legislations as much as possible.

At this moment there is one classification available which is indicative of the harmfulness of bulk materials for surface water: the Ship Waste Resolution. It classifies different shiploads into two classes according to how clean the hold has to before before purging the waste wash water into the surface water. Some waste wash waters are not permitted to be purged into surface water, the third most harmful class.
The current (inter)national legislation concerning surface water quality is based on maximum permitted concentrations of known substances. In this context there is a methodology which is used to assess liquid discharges of known composition, the General Assement Methodology (ABM). It assigns a decontamination class to the discharge according to the harmfulness of the discharge to surface water. This class determines the level of effort that has to be put into the decontamination of the discharge before it can be released into the surface water. This methodology is used sporadically to assess the harmfulness of bulk materials, it's application is however not always sound. First of all the methodology cannot asses the unknown components of the bulk materials. Second the methodology is developed to determine the harmfulness of liquid substances, not solid materials like bulk materials; the process in which various components of the bulk materials lixiviate into the surrounding surface is unknown.
The Total Liquid Waste Assessment (TEB) can handle unknown components in a liquid discharge. It assesses the harmfulness of a total discharge with effect oriented parameters. Information concerning composition is not needed. There is however no (inter)national legislation concerning water quality assessed in an effect oriented manner.

A methodology which can assess the harmfulness of bulk materials has be effect oriented in general to cope with the complex composition. It does however have to give some information concerning the most important concentrations of individual substances. A new methodology should also make use of existing assessment tools to facilitate implementation.
For this reason the general the new methodology will use harmfulness classes which correspond to the decontamination classes of the ABM. It should also give a quantitative indication of the harmfulness of the bulk material for the surface water. The methodology will asses bulk materials on the content of dangerous (known) substances, the lixiviation and the amount of dust formation in water. The lixiviation product of the bulk materials will be assed with the TEB, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphate- & nitrogen loads effectparameters. It will probably not be necessary to assess the lixiviation product of the different types of bulk material with all effectparameters, though a experimental research will have to prove this. This will reduce the total amount of experiments needed to asses all bulk materials on harmfulness for surface water. This methodology will thus be partly substance oriented, by assigning a (decontamination) class A to all bulk materials which posses known harmful components. Further specific substance data will however require two parallel assessments, a substance oriented assessment and an effect oriented assessment.

A quantitative indication of the harmfulness of bulk materials seems of less value than the (decontamination) harmfulness class. A relatively simple classification procedure to determine this is sufficient (only 3 classes), depending on the values of the various (effect)parameters. The development of a quantitative indication of the harmfulness of a bulk material is more complex and will require a more specific and defined approach. The intrinsic value of a quantitative indication of the harmfulness is however limited because, among others, an (inter)national legislation of such a value does not exist. A recommendation for the further development of this methodology is the selection of missing (effect)parameter protocols. Furthermore the experiment which confirms the needed effect parameters to assess the various bulk material lixiviation products types should be performed. The different options throughout the classification procedure should also be defined. Finally the value of the Ship Waste Water classification should be examined for added value for this classification procedure. It can potentially reduce the number of bulk materials that have to be assessed and or reduce the classification procedures in length.

Reports on Transport Engineering and Logistics (in Dutch)
Modified: 2007.08.23; , TU Delft / 3mE / TT / LT.